From 1 April 2015 we are part of Public Health England

We are still maintaining this website until further notice.

Anomaly Groups: Region

Return to list of data

* Download Region Anomaly Group data as Excel spreadsheet - contact SWCAR to get access to this dataset [Help]

Crude rate is the number of cases per 10,000 registered births (livebirths and stillbirths). Cases ending in live or stillbirth, termination or spontaneous fetal loss are all included in the numerator.

Livebirth prevalance rate is the total number of live born cases per 10,000 livebirths.

Figures in the Rates columns reflect the number of cases (babies/children) with one or more anomalies in that group or sub-group, not the total number of anomalies. Cases with multiple anomalies within the same anomaly group or sub-group, are counted only once in that group or sub-group. For example, a baby with transposition of the great vessels and a VSD will be counted once in each of the ‘transposition great vessels’ and ‘VSD’ minor sub-groups, once in each of the ‘All complex cyanotic CHD’ and ‘All septal defects’ sub-groups, but only once in the ‘Circulatory’ group.

Anomaly grouping 2003 Rate 2004 Rate 2005 Rate 2006 Rate 2007 Rate 2008 Rate 2009 Rate 2010 Rate 2011 Rate 2012 Rate 2013 Rate Region Crude Rate 2003-13 Livebirth Prevalence Rate 2003-13
All cases 331.8 331.5 355.9 371.7 368.6 369.0 368.9 377.0 337.3 314.5 315.2 349.2 268.1
A: Neurological 30.9 33.1 35.7 37.8 30.6 32.3 33.6 34.9 32.8 34.1 34.8 33.7 17.4
All neural tube defects 12.7 13.0 12.6 11.7 11.3 9.8 10.9 10.9 13.3 13.0 15.6 12.3 2.0
anencephalus 5.2 5.6 4.9 4.7 3.9 3.6 4.2 5.1 6.4 5.2 5.2 4.9 0.3
spina bifida 6.8 5.6 6.4 5.8 6.6 5.6 4.6 4.7 5.4 6.5 8.6 6.0 1.5
encephalocele 0.9 2.0 1.6 1.3 1.0 0.6 2.0 1.4 1.5 1.3 1.8 1.4 0.3
Congenital hydrocephalus 7.3 6.3 5.8 8.3 3.9 7.8 7.8 8.0 7.9 7.3 6.2 7.0 3.8
Muscular dystrophy 0.2     0.4           0.6   0.1 0.1
Duchenne MD 0.2     0.2           0.6   0.1 0.1
B: Eye Ear Face Neck 17.0 18.3 16.8 20.7 21.4 13.4 17.1 16.0 15.0 15.7 13.8 16.8 13.5
All eye 9.3 7.8 8.2 8.5 10.7 6.8 9.1 6.6 6.6 4.2 7.0 7.7 6.6
anophthalmos / microphthalmos 2.0 0.4 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.1 0.9
congenital cataract 1.1 0.9 2.2 1.3 1.9 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.9 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.7
anomalies surrounding structures 2.5 2.2 1.3 1.5 2.7 1.6 1.2 1.2 1.0 0.6 1.0 1.5 1.4
All ear 3.2 1.6 2.7 3.0 4.9 2.0 3.0 3.1 1.7 1.9 3.0 2.7 2.5
external ear anomalies 1.1 0.4 0.4 1.3 1.9 1.0 0.8 1.2 0.6 0.2 0.8 0.9 0.8
sensorineural hearing loss 0.7 0.4 0.9 0.4 2.1 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.7
C: Circulatory 59.5 57.5 70.2 63.4 73.0 62.6 69.2 78.1 71.0 64.7 61.6 66.6 57.3
Disordered circulation 1.8 2.9 2.2 2.6 5.6 2.0 6.8 6.0 3.3 3.1 2.6 3.6 3.6
All septal defects 34.3 38.2 41.0 37.4 40.1 38.5 42.2 44.2 44.9 37.5 42.0 40.1 36.5
ASD (all types) 7.5 13.6 9.8 9.2 10.1 5.6 8.6 9.9 7.9 4.2 3.8 8.1 7.7
VSD 25.7 23.9 29.7 29.5 30.4 31.1 33.8 34.7 35.9 28.5 34.0 30.8 28.6
AVSD 3.9 5.4 4.7 3.8 3.5 3.6 3.4 4.3 5.8 6.5 6.2 4.7 3.5
All complex cyanotic CHD 5.0 5.1 4.7 5.3 7.6 7.0 4.2 6.2 7.1 9.4 7.2 6.3 5.4
transposition great vessels 3.6 3.8 2.4 3.0 3.7 4.0 2.6 2.9 3.3 4.8 5.2 3.6 3.0
tetralogy of Fallot 1.4 1.3 2.2 2.3 3.9 3.0 1.6 3.3 3.9 4.6 2.0 2.7 2.4
All heart valve anomalies 12.3 11.0 14.6 13.0 14.8 13.2 14.9 17.3 16.6 12.4 11.2 13.8 12.3
pulmonary valve anomalies 3.6 4.9 6.4 6.2 5.6 7.0 7.4 6.2 7.1 5.4 5.0 5.9 5.3
tricuspid valve anomalies 1.1 2.9 2.2 3.0 2.1 2.8 3.0 3.3 3.1 2.5 3.2 2.7 2.2
mitral valve anomalies 1.4 1.3 2.0 0.4 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.4 2.9 2.3 1.6 1.6 1.3
aortic valve anomalies 6.1 2.0 5.8 3.4 5.8 3.0 3.8 5.8 5.0 3.6 2.8 4.3 4.0
All vessel anomalies 13.6 13.4 20.6 18.4 20.1 10.6 14.7 18.3 18.1 16.1 13.6 16.1 13.6
pulmonary artery anomalies 4.3 6.9 7.1 5.3 5.8 1.6 5.6 5.3 3.9 3.3 2.8 4.7 3.9
aorta anomalies 6.8 5.4 10.0 9.2 10.9 6.6 7.2 9.7 8.7 8.8 7.4 8.3 6.7
All chamber anomalies 11.4 10.3 13.1 14.1 11.1 9.8 13.3 13.2 9.6 13.4 12.2 12.0 8.1
hypoplastic left heart 3.0 3.4 2.2 4.5 2.3 3.2 3.0 2.5 1.7 2.7 2.6 2.8 1.4
hypoplastic right heart 0.2   0.4 0.2 0.2   0.8 0.6 0.8 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.3
Conduction anomalies 2.0 1.6 2.4 1.7 2.3 1.4 1.8 2.3 1.7 1.0 0.4 1.7 1.6
D: Respiratory 11.4 13.4 12.9 11.7 11.7 12.8 16.3 17.9 19.7 18.4 15.4 14.8 8.5
All airways 7.5 9.8 8.4 7.3 8.2 9.2 11.3 14.4 16.2 14.7 12.8 11.0 5.8
All lung 4.1 4.2 6.9 4.9 4.1 4.0 5.2 3.7 3.7 4.2 3.0 4.3 2.6
cystic anomalies 1.1 1.3 1.8 1.9 1.0 1.2 1.8 1.6 2.1 1.9 0.6 1.5 1.4
agenesis 1.1 0.2 3.3 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.4 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.0 0.2
hypoplasia 1.6 1.8 1.8 2.1 1.0 0.4 0.4 0.8   0.2 0.4 0.9 0.3
E: Digestive 36.8 40.5 35.2 41.8 43.0 32.7 32.8 40.1 35.1 31.2 41.0 37.2 31.0
All clefting 15.9 17.9 14.6 16.9 19.7 15.0 14.1 18.5 14.7 14.7 19.4 16.5 14.1
lips 3.4 3.8 3.1 3.8 4.5 3.6 2.8 5.6 3.1 3.3 4.8 3.8 3.3
alveolar 0.5 0.9 0.7   0.6 0.2   0.2 0.6 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.3
isolated cleft palate 5.5 6.9 5.8 8.5 7.4 6.4 6.2 7.6 6.2 6.1 7.8 6.8 6.1
cleft palate with cleft lip 6.8 6.9 5.8 4.5 7.8 5.0 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.4 7.2 5.9 4.8
All oesophagus / stomach 3.2 3.6 3.1 4.5 3.3 4.2 3.6 3.3 3.7 3.3 3.4 3.6 3.2
tracheo-oesophageal atresia, fistula, stenosis 2.3 3.4 2.4 3.8 2.9 3.8 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.5 3.2 3.0 2.8
All intestines 12.3 11.2 12.2 13.2 16.4 10.0 10.9 14.2 11.4 11.1 14.0 12.4 10.1
duodenal atresia 0.7 1.1 1.8 1.9 2.5 1.2 1.4 2.1 2.3 2.1 1.8 1.7 1.7
other small bowel atresias 0.7 0.7 1.3 0.9 2.3 1.0 0.6 2.1 1.2 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.2
large bowel atresias 3.9 4.2 2.2 3.2 4.1 2.6 3.2 3.5 4.0 2.3 4.6 3.4 2.2
Hirschsprung's disease 1.6 0.4 1.6 1.7 2.5 1.0 1.0 2.1 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.5
All digestive organs 3.2 3.1 2.9 4.7 2.3 3.2 4.0 4.1 3.5 2.3 1.8 3.2 2.3
bilary atresia   0.9 0.2 0.4 0.6 1.0 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.5
F: Urinary 28.2 35.8 37.7 40.8 37.8 38.1 37.0 35.3 28.9 28.7 27.8 34.1 27.8
All kidney 16.1 22.4 21.1 23.9 20.1 18.1 19.9 22.0 18.5 21.2 19.8 20.3 15.4
agenesis 3.2 3.8 5.5 3.8 3.5 4.2 3.8 5.6 6.0 6.1 5.2 4.7 2.9
hypoplasia 0.5 2.7 1.1 1.5 0.4 0.6 1.2 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.8 0.5
cystic 5.9 6.3 7.8 9.2 6.0 6.6 6.4 6.0 6.9 6.5 5.0 6.6 5.1
other specific kidney 5.5 6.5 4.2 7.7 7.6 5.0 7.2 7.8 4.2 7.8 7.6 6.5 5.3
All renal pelvis / ureters 12.3 15.2 17.5 19.2 17.1 18.9 17.5 14.6 10.8 10.0 9.6 14.7 13.0
pelviureteric obstruction 8.4 10.1 12.6 14.5 13.4 16.4 15.1 11.3 6.9 8.8 8.6 11.4 10.7
hydronephrosis, 10mm or over 2.7 4.5 6.9 7.3 5.1 3.6 3.2 4.9 4.8 2.5 2.2 4.3 4.2
All bladder / urethra 4.5 6.0 5.1 7.9 4.5 5.6 4.6 4.5 6.0 4.2 6.8 5.4 3.0
epispadias   0.4 0.7 0.4 0.6 0.2 0.8 0.6 0.8 0.2 1.2 0.5 0.5
G: Genital 44.1 40.9 46.8 49.1 44.0 48.9 41.2 42.5 39.5 37.3 44.2 43.4 42.1
Female 3.2 4.9 3.1 3.2 4.1 4.4 2.8 2.3 2.9 3.1 2.6 3.3 2.5
Male 40.4 35.6 43.2 45.9 39.5 43.9 38.0 40.3 36.3 33.7 41.2 39.7 39.2
hypospadias 20.9 22.6 29.9 30.1 28.6 30.3 27.6 26.3 25.8 23.4 32.6 27.1 27.2
Intersex 0.5 0.7 0.7   0.4 0.6 0.4   0.6 0.6 1.0 0.5 0.5
H: Endocrine, metabolic 10.7 14.5 14.0 12.6 13.6 12.8 11.7 14.0 9.6 7.8 5.4 11.4 10.1
All thyroid 1.4 2.5 2.0 1.9 3.7 4.8 3.2 2.9 1.5 2.3 1.0 2.5 2.5
hypothyroidism 1.4 2.5 2.0 1.9 3.7 4.8 3.2 2.9 1.5 2.3 1.0 2.5 2.5
Phenylketonuria     0.2     0.4 0.4 0.2   0.2   0.1 0.1
Cystic fibrosis 3.0 2.2 2.2 3.2 3.3 2.2 2.4 3.5 4.0 3.1 1.2 2.8 2.7
Adrenal 1.1 2.5 1.1 1.5 0.8 0.2 0.8 1.4 1.7 0.6 1.2 1.2 0.4
J: Blood, immune, lymphatic 3.0 4.9 7.5 6.6 5.3 3.4 3.8 4.7 4.0 3.4 3.2 4.5 4.4
Thalassaemia 0.5 0.4 1.6 0.4 0.2 0.8   1.2   0.2   0.5 0.5
Sickle cell 0.2 0.2 0.9 1.5 2.3 0.8 1.4 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.1
Immunodeficiency   0.2   0.2               0.0 0.0
K: Skin 13.2 9.8 8.6 9.0 9.0 9.6 13.3 14.0 11.4 11.7 7.4 10.7 4.3
Cystic hygroma 9.3 5.6 4.2 5.1 4.5 6.8 7.8 9.5 8.5 9.4 5.0 6.9 0.8
L: Limbs 57.2 76.5 70.7 75.4 67.0 62.2 68.0 67.2 52.1 62.2 62.8 65.4 54.8
All upper limb 19.8 28.6 21.9 21.8 17.7 15.4 20.1 22.6 19.3 18.6 20.0 20.4 14.6
polydactyly 6.1 8.3 8.4 6.4 6.8 5.6 9.1 9.0 8.1 6.1 9.0 7.5 7.1
syndactyly 1.1 3.1 1.6 2.8 1.0 2.0 1.8 2.3 1.0 2.1 2.4 1.9 1.6
reduction defects 7.9 9.8 8.2 9.0 6.2 5.0 6.0 7.2 6.6 6.3 7.0 7.1 4.2
All lower limb 40.7 52.1 48.5 55.5 49.8 46.9 49.9 50.1 34.5 45.4 45.6 47.1 39.4
polydactyly 2.3 4.2 1.6 3.4 3.9 2.0 2.6 4.3 2.7 3.1 3.8 3.1 2.7
syndactyly 4.3 4.9 5.3 5.3 4.5 4.4 7.2 5.6 5.2 7.8 7.2 5.7 5.4
reduction defects 5.5 8.7 5.1 4.3 3.5 3.6 4.8 5.5 3.3 3.8 6.2 4.9 2.3
dysplastic hip 10.2 9.4 12.4 10.2 12.5 13.6 11.5 14.0 8.9 11.1 10.6 11.3 11.3
non-postural talipes 11.1 13.4 10.2 14.1 11.3 11.2 10.5 10.7 7.3 11.3 10.0 11.0 6.5
Non limb-specific 5.0 6.7 7.3 8.1 7.8 6.8 4.8 4.9 6.0 6.7 6.8 6.4 5.0
M: Musculoskeletal 35.0 40.0 34.6 40.4 34.7 33.3 41.4 42.1 37.6 33.1 38.6 37.4 23.1
All abdominal wall defects 8.9 10.5 7.5 9.0 9.3 7.6 12.3 12.5 9.4 8.0 11.2 9.7 5.5
gastroschisis 2.3 5.8 3.3 3.4 4.7 3.8 5.4 6.0 4.2 3.8 4.6 4.3 3.9
exomphalos 5.9 4.0 2.9 4.9 3.7 2.6 5.2 5.3 4.4 3.4 4.6 4.3 1.1
All diaphragm 2.5 3.1 4.9 4.7 4.1 2.4 3.2 4.3 3.5 3.1 1.8 3.4 2.1
hernia / agenesis 2.0 3.1 4.4 4.7 3.9 2.2 3.0 4.3 3.5 2.9 1.6 3.2 2.0
All short stature 2.5 2.2 2.0 1.7 1.4 1.0 1.2 2.7 1.3 0.8 1.2 1.6 1.1
achondroplasia 0.7 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.8 0.4 0.4
All other specific musculoskeletal 24.3 27.7 23.0 26.7 22.8 23.7 26.4 25.9 25.5 22.4 26.6 25.0 14.9
skull, face & neck 10.7 15.0 11.1 12.8 12.1 11.4 16.5 11.7 13.5 12.1 13.8 12.8 7.6
thorax & trunk 5.7 3.4 3.8 6.2 4.9 4.0 3.6 6.2 6.6 5.6 6.2 5.1 2.0
spine & pelvis 7.7 6.5 6.0 5.1 6.2 6.8 5.0 7.0 6.0 3.8 6.0 6.0 3.1
N: Neoplastic 0.9 1.3 0.9 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.2 2.1 1.0 1.3 1.0 1.3 1.0
O: Genetic / multi-site disorders 75.6 57.5 65.2 72.2 76.1 89.0 88.3 86.9 87.2 82.7 70.4 77.8 30.3
All chromosomal 70.6 54.4 59.6 66.0 70.3 84.2 83.7 82.8 84.5 80.2 67.6 73.6 26.7
trisomy 21 - Down's syndrome 24.5 23.7 27.7 28.4 27.8 36.3 32.2 34.5 32.2 32.5 28.2 30.0 11.0
trisomy 18 - Edwards' syndrome 7.3 6.3 6.4 9.4 7.2 9.4 10.3 8.8 10.8 8.8 7.4 8.4 1.0
trisomy 13 - Patau's syndrome 2.3 2.2 2.4 3.4 5.1 4.2 4.6 4.7 4.2 4.2 5.4 3.9 0.4
triploidy / polyploidy 5.0 2.5 1.6 1.7 3.1 5.6 5.6 5.1 4.0 5.6 3.4 4.0 0.1
Turner's syndrome 6.1 2.7 3.3 3.0 4.7 6.4 6.2 6.4 6.4 7.3 4.2 5.2 1.0
Klinefelter's syndrome 0.7 0.4 2.0 1.9 1.0 1.0 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.2 0.9 0.5
other anomalies sex chromosomes 2.3 1.6 1.3 2.6 2.5 2.0 2.0 1.8 2.1 2.5 1.0 2.0 1.6
deletions 8.4 5.8 7.1 7.0 9.0 8.6 9.5 9.2 9.6 5.6 3.8 7.6 6.5
other chromosome anomalies 14.3 9.6 8.0 9.8 10.7 12.8 14.1 13.4 15.4 14.7 14.4 12.6 5.0
Other genetic disorder 5.9 3.6 6.2 6.8 6.0 5.4 4.8 4.9 4.0 4.0 3.6 5.0 4.4
P: Pregnancy related 3.4 4.7 4.0 6.2 4.9 4.0 5.2 8.0 4.8 6.5 9.2 5.6 4.2
R: Infectious 3.4 3.6 1.3 2.6 3.3 1.0 1.0 1.6 3.5 1.5 1.4 2.2 1.2
viral 1.1 0.7   0.4 1.2 0.4 0.2 1.0 1.9 1.1 1.4 0.9 0.5
bacterial   0.2   0.2 0.2   0.6 0.2 0.2     0.1 0.2
fungal                          
S: Suggestion of underlying anomaly 10.0 7.4 7.5 4.3 8.6 4.8 9.1 8.0 6.7 7.3 11.6 7.7 3.4
hydrops 7.5 5.4 5.5 2.3 5.3 3.4 6.2 6.0 4.8 5.6 2.2 4.9 0.9
Additional anomalies collected by SWCAR                          
pyloric stenosis 9.1 5.4 7.8 9.0 12.1 8.4 10.5 9.5 6.6 6.5 5.2 8.2 8.2
inguinal hernia 28.8 28.2 33.0 31.8 33.5 37.5 33.0 24.7 23.3 23.5 18.4 28.6 28.7
balanced translocation 0.7 1.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2   0.2   0.2 0.3 0.3
café au lait spot   0.2 0.2 0.4   0.2   0.2       0.1 0.1
other branchial cleft malformations                          
hydronephrosis >5mm <10mm 12.9 12.5 12.6 15.8 15.6 27.5 24.7 14.0 11.4 12.2 14.4 15.9 15.1
vesicoureteric reflux 1.8 2.2 2.0 3.4 1.9 3.0 2.8 1.4 0.6 0.6 0.6 1.8 1.8
congenital subluxation of hip 1.8 2.0 0.4 5.1 1.0 2.2 1.6 1.4 0.2 0.4 0.4 1.5 1.5